There are two types of ‘feral’ – or naturalised – geese found widely across the UK. The Greylag Goose is the ancestor of the farmyard goose, and has a genuinely wild, mainly-wintering population, found in Scotland.
The Canada Goose is almost exclusively derived from introduced stock. These introductions of the larger race canadensis from the east side of North America, began as long ago as the later 17th Century, during the reign of Charles II. So, the birds have been around much longer than ‘accepted’ introduced species, such as the Little Owl.
Why Canada? The bulk of the original (natural) breeding population is in the northern half of North America, principally Canada. With naturalised populations in the UK, New Zealand and South America, there is a little slice of Canada all round the world.
The Lesser Redpoll is a small, brown, streaky finch with a black bib and a red patch on its forehead. It is, of course, this red patch which gives the bird its redpoll name (poll being an older name for head).
They are the smallest ‘type’ of the redpoll complex, and are mainly found in the UK and adjacent Western European areas.
Once upon a time, they were included with most others as the species Redpoll, within which they were regarded as a subspecies. But the species was ‘split’ relatively recently, so we now have Lesser Redpoll and Common Redpoll (this confusing name includes the Mealy Redpolls and Northwestern Redpolls).
In addition, there are the Arctic Redpolls, which to add to the confusion, some regard as at least two taxa, Hornemann’s (Arctic) Redpoll and Coues’s (Arctic) Redpoll.
This southern European (and African) lark is extremely similar to Crested Lark, and can be hard to identify even with decent views. It was named as recently as 1857 by the German zoologist Alfred Edmund Brehm in honour of his late sister, Thekla. The bird’s name has historically often been written as Thekla Lark, but seems to more accurately reflect its origin if called Thekla’s Lark (as suggested by the species name theklae).
The stream-loving Dipper is our most aquatic passerine (ie songbird or perching bird), perfectly at home plunging into a torrent, swimming under water and foraging for invertebrates, while clinging to stones on the stream bed. The name, though, probably derives not from it frequently going for a dip in the water, but rather from its constant bobbing or dipping, when out of the water.
The old name ‘Water Ouzel’ uses the old name for a Blackbird: ouzel (as in Ring Ouzel), as Dippers, though not closely related to thrushes, are roughly thrush-sized and largely black.
The name of the scarce, winter visiting Rough-legged Buzzard is not hard to explain. It is
a buzzard of the genus Buteo, to which our familiar Buzzard belongs. And it has feathered tarsi (lower legs), unlike the Buzzard which shows bare, yellow tarsi. The feathering on the lower legs (and feet to some extent) is thought to be an adaptation to the cold, of its Arctic breeding range.
This is much the same adaptation as that of the ‘furry’ legs and feet of grouse. This similarity is not lost in the name either, as the scientific name of the Rough-legged Buzzard is Buteo lagopus. Lagopus derives from the Ancient Greek for hare and foot, and is also the name given to the genus of the grouse.
It is thought that the ‘Pipit’ part of the Meadow Pipit’s name comes from its ‘pipit’
like clipped call (when it isn’t saying ‘see-see-see’…). The ‘Meadow’ part comes from its love of open country and grassy habitats. Some older birdwatchers still use the traditional old name of ‘Tit-lark’ for the bird, being a combination of lark (which the pipit somewhat resembles) and tit to denote that it is a much smaller bird than a Sky Lark.
The Black-winged Stilt is a relative of the Avocet, in the family Recurvirostridae. This family of waders includes a few other avocet species from around the world, as well as a few other stilts. The basic difference between avocets and stilts is that the former have fine, up-turned bills and shorter legs, with more pronounced webbing in the feet (making swimming easier); whereas stilts have fine, straight bills and very long legs.
The naming of the stilts, of course, comes from just how long these legs are, looking wildly out of proportion with the rest of the bird. This is particularly apparent when the bird is in flight and the long, red legs trail miles behind!
The Turnstone is one of those birds which is named after its typical feeding habits. They use their ‘chisel-shaped’ bills to flip over bits of weed, shell and indeed, stones to look for invertebrates such as sandhoppers, which are living underneath.
Though no-one is certain, the name of the Rook is almost certainly derived from its call, the soft cawing call which is so familiar from the breeding colonies and fly-over birds. The chess piece with the same name has an unrelated etymology; it is thought to be from Arabic or Persian words for ‘chariot’ or ‘war chariot’ which may have become confused with the Italian word ‘rocca’ meaning tower. The bird’s scientific name Corvus frugilegus means fruit-picking raven (or crow).
The Water Pipit used to be regarded as conspecific with the Rock Pipit when many of us were learning our birdwatching skills. They are in many ways similar, but have quite different habitat preferences. While Rock Pipits are birds of rocky coasts, Water Pipits breed in mountainous, alpine slopes and high plains. So why are they ‘Water’ Pipits? This is because, outside the breeding season, they head downslope, to lowland areas, marshes, water-cress beds, flooded meadows and so on. These are the habitats we in the UK usually encounter Water Pipits in, when you would never guess that they were mountain breeders.
They are scarce birds in the UK (mainly the south and east), with perhaps fewer than 200 wintering, but they are very shy and somewhat elusive, and can often be hard to see in their chosen habitat; so perhaps the population is an underestimate.
This lovely, big bunting gets its name for just the reason you may expect. In addition to largely being a winter visitor (and so hardy and able to cope with snow), they are, at least in this country, high altitude breeders, choosing the tops of mountains in, for example, the Cairngorms, which remain snowy well into the breeding season. Both males and females are whitish to look like the snowy environment, with breeding males being strikingly black and white (especially the wings). Unlike most perching birds (passerines or songbirds), Snow Buntings even have fluffy feathered lower legs (tarsi), like a mini grouse leg!
The name of the Mistle Thrush apparently comes from the bird's perceived liking for Mistletoe berries, though why it is not called the Mistletoe thrush is not entirely clear. Even the scientific name (Turdus viscivorus) given the bird by Linnaeus in 1758 reflects this. Viscivorus means mistletoe eater.
Bewick’s Swan was named in 1830 by William Yarrell, in honour of Thomas Bewick, the great late 18th and early 19th Century engraver and natural history author. He wrote A History of British Birds which has been regarded as the forerunner of modern field guides. Incidentally, there is also a Bewick’s Wren in North America.
The harrier part of the Hen Harrier’s name, probably comes from the bird’s low-flying hunting technique, flying low over moorland, etc., to flush up potential prey, by harrying it. There is also an argument that the name derives from the harrier breed of dog, which was traditionally used as a fox- or hare-hunting hound. The Hen in the bird’s name comes from the bird’s predation of Red Grouse (aka ‘moor hens’).
There are two species of dowitcher on the British List, which are very similar North American waders with very long, straight, snipe-like bills. These are the Long-billed and the much rarer Short-billed Dowitcher (which also has a long bill!).
The origin of the odd name ‘dowitcher’ is slightly lost in obscurity, but is most likely from an Iroquoian word for snipe-like birds. There is an Oneida (one of the Iroquois tribes, from north-eastern USA) word for snipe: tawistawe or tawistawis, which is the presumed origin of the Anglicised dowitcher.
The scientific name for the dowitcher genus is Limnodromus, which translates as ‘marsh racer’.
Pic: Nigel Pye/Alamy
Here are two wading birds which have the word ‘curlew’ as part of their names. Neither are at all closely related to the Curlew itself and both have different reasons for adopting the name. Curlew Sandpipers (below) are called that because, of the ‘sandpipers’, they have long, downcurved bills, as well as a taller, more long-necked, long-legged, and so Curlew-like structure, like a miniature Curlew.
Stone-curlews don’t look like Curlews but have very Curlew like calls, which are often heard after dark. So, in a sense, they are named after the Curlew in the same way that the Curlew itself was named, after the ‘curleee’ call.
In a taxonomic world of splits and lumps (and particularly splits), the classification of the Scottish Crossbill still invites a good degree of scepticism. It was long recognised that many of the crossbills of the Caledonian pine forests of Scotland looked a bit different from other crossbills, particularly in the bill shape. The bill is ‘half way’ between a Crossbill’s and Parrot Crossbill’s in depth. In 1980, the BOU officially split the species, recognising Scottish Crossbill as a separate species, and the only full species of bird endemic to the UK.
More recent studies have suggested that the calls of Scottish Crossbills are also slightly different from other crossbills. So, for now, the species stands. Of course the name crossbill
comes from the birds’ unique crossed mandible tips, which help them extract seeds from conifer cones.
Most birdwatchers were brought up in an era when Panurus barmicus was known as the Bearded Tit. We were, of course, aware that it wasn’t really a true tit, and it didn’t have a beard as such, but we knew the bird’s name and the name suited the bird and that was all that mattered. Look in a field guide like the Collins Bird Guide and the bird is called Bearded Reedling. Some even call it the Bearded Parrotbill.
The reason it got the ‘tit’ name in the first place is because it resembles true tits in many ways, being small, acrobatic and with a short thin bill. It is also quite like the Long-tailed Tit which is in a family related to the true tits, but isn’t actually a proper tit, either! Giving a bird the ‘wrong’ epithet is something that upsets some bird namers. But it is prevalent in the naming of birds around the world. So, we see warblers, blackbirds, orioles and sparrows in the Americas which are not closely related to birds with the same name in the Old World. And very few people make any fuss.
The Nuthatch is, as most birdwatchers know, the only regularly occurring British bird which habitually moves headfirst down trunks and branches. It is part of a wider family which is widespread across the northern hemisphere and though it is one of a few species which occur in Europe, is more ‘correctly’ known as the Eurasian Nuthatch, which has a very wide distribution from western Europe to Japan and far-eastern Russia.
The word ‘Nuthatch’ dates back at least to the 14th Century and refers to the bird’s habit of wedging a nut in a crevice then repeatedly bashing it with its bill. It is thought that the ‘hatch’ part of the name is an obsolete form of ‘hack’.
The word snipe, as used for long-billed stripy sandpipers, derives at least from the 14th Century from the Old Norse snipa from myrisnipa (moor snipe). There are various north-western European alternatives, including the Old Saxon sneppa, Middle Dutch snippe, German Schnepfe, Swedish snäppe (meaning sandpiper) and the Old English snite.
The word has become uncomplimentary in the sense of guttersnipe, presumably derived from the snipes’ choice of gutter or ditch-like habitat. Snipe has also given us the term sniper, originally applied for a shooter accurate and skilful enough to take down one of these small, fast, jinking ‘targets’.
The jack part of Jack Snipe probably derives from Jack as used as a diminutive, as in terms like Jack Pike for a small Pike or the ‘jack’ in bowls. However, it may also derive from the Welsh word for a Snipe Giack (though that would be pronounced with a hard g, so it seems unlikely).